Adware is any computer program or software in which advertisements are displayed while the program is running. Adware is sometimes used to help recover programming development costs or reduce the price of the software application.

Computer Virus

Viruses are malicious programs or codes that are inserted into computer systems without the user's permission and operate without the user's knowledge. Viruses are executable files that, if opened, replicate themselves in host files and spread uncontrollably to other host files. Depending on their severity, viruses can extensively damage software on a computer or the computer itself.


A Web page that welcomes you by name uses cookies which identifies users and prepares customized content for them.


A very distinct class of malware, designed specifically to automate cybercrime.  Through social engineering, crimeware is designed to perpetrate identity theft in order to access a computer user's online accounts at financial services companies and online retailers for the purpose of taking funds from those accounts.  Crimeware also often has the intent to export confidential or sensitive information from a network for financial exploitation.


A scientific or methodical approach to an analysis or investigation. For example, a Forensic Computer Examination refers to the systematic examination of a computer for desired clues or data.

Keystroke Logging

Often called keylogging, is the action of tracking (or logging) the keys struck on a computer’s keyboard, typically in a covert manner so that the person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored.


Any software programs developed for the purpose of doing harm to a computer system or create mischief. The most common are Viruses, Worms, and Spyware

P2P, Also Known As Peer-to-Peer (P2P) File-Sharing

File-sharing is one of the oldest and most used features of the Internet. It traditionally requires a Web site on which files can be uploaded, stored, and downloaded. There are a number of risks associated with P2P file-sharing. P2P client software can easily infect personal computers with viruses and spyware, creating a host of problems for the computer’s owner such as the theft of financial information.


Official looking and sounding messages that urge immediate action to update sensitive financial and identity information


Scareware comprises several classes of scam software with malicious payloads, or of limited or no benefit, that are sold to consumers via certain unethical marketing practices. The selling approach uses social engineering to cause shock, anxiety, or the perception of a threat, generally directed at an unsuspecting user.

Social Engineering, Also Known As Phishing

Social Engineering is a scam that preys upon our acceptance of authority and willingness to cooperate with others. The Social Engineer’s objective is to extract sensitive information such as your social security number, bank account information, or login name and password to a website.  Be wary of any “official” email, telephone call, text message, or in-person encounter that asks you to give out identity or financial information.

Social Networking Sites, Also Known As Friend-of-a-Friend Sites

There are hundreds of Social Networking Sites, such as MySpace, Friendster, LinkedIn and Facebook, where people meet in cyberspace to chat, socialize, debate, and network. All of them share the same feature of helping people connect with others who have similar interests. Often, criminals looking for financial gain, sexual predators, and abusive personalities prowl these sites searching for victims.


The cyber equivalent to junk mail – spammers have developed many ways of obtaining email addresses


Spyware gathers information without the knowledge or permission of the computer user. While Spyware often gathers information for advertising purposes, these hidden programs can do much more – they can obtain credit card numbers, passwords, and email addresses.


How to take a test

Trojan Horse

Appears to be a useful, legitimate file or software program, but once installed, it can cause havoc with a computer by damaging or deleting files. Just as the Trojan people were deceived into accepting the Greeks' gift of a monumental horse, users are often tricked into accepting the Trojan Horse software. The unsuspecting user opens the file or downloads the software and the damage is done. They often open a backdoor into the computer, allowing unscrupulous individuals to steal sensitive financial and identity information.


Worms are malicious programs or codes that are inserted into computer systems without the user's permission and operate without the user's knowledge. Unlike viruses which cannot spread without human intervention, Worms spread automatically from computer to computer. Worms can replicate themselves and send out hundreds or even thousands of copies from each infected computer, tapping into the user's email addresses to spread the infection.

Source:  "Online Cyber Security - Cyber Safety Glossary,"